Many stadiums around the world now require special roof structures which utilize the principles we look for in a lightweight structure.
Some recent stadium structures are shown below:
The Adelaide Oval is a world class cricket facility that has been the focus of a $535 million redevelopment which was completed in 2014.
The slider shows some images from a visit in July 2015.
Photo Credits: Peter Kneen
A link to view details (non-engineering) of the stadiums for the 2010 World Cup in South Africa:
Credits: The following article is adapted from
The 2010 Fifa World Cup will be played out in 10 newly built or upgraded stadiums, in nine South African cities.
Five are existing stadiums, all of which have been upgraded, with the showpiece Soccer City in Johannesburg having undergone a major upgrade. The remaining five have been built from scratch - and completed on schedule.
The stadiums are:
Soccer City Stadium, Johannesburg
Ellis Park Stadium, Johannesburg
Cape Town Stadium, Cape Town
Loftus Versfeld Stadium, Pretoria
Durban Stadium, Durban
Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium, Port Elizabeth
Royal Bafokeng Stadium, Rustenburg
Free State Stadium, Bloemfontein
Mbombela Stadium, Nelspruit
Peter Mokaba Stadium, Polokwane
Demolition and groundwork began in 2006, with construction of all the major facilities starting in February 2007. South Africa’s construction industry, which has substantial experience in large-scale infrastructure development, was consulted about the stadium timelines - and it was agreed that the dates were realistic.
Structural Design of the Arch and Roof of Wembley Stadium
Kourosh Kayvani, PhD, FIEAust, CPEng
Aurecon, Sydney, Australia
The aim of the new Wembley Stadium was to design and build a state-of-the-art national stadium, unlike any other in the world. The new stadium, with its elegant exposed steel structure arch, is an international icon as was the old stadium with its twin towers which was built in 1923.
The design brief required the roof not to cover the playing field which lead to one unique aspect of the roof in that it partially retracts over the seats to allow the daylight to reach all points of the pitch and thus a shadow-free playing field.
The retractable roof is formed by seven separate independently driven roof panels totalling 15,000 sqm that move in a parallel motion to the south as they "open" and stack on the top of one another when in a fully "open" position.
With the retracting roof panels all moving to the south, the roof design exploits the opportunity to have a tall, structurally efficient structure on the north side to support the north and south roofs. The solution was to have an elegant and structurally efficient arch which spans the entire width of the stadium's seating bowl (Figure 1).
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Skilled Stadium, Gold Coast
Entrant: Tensys Engineering Pty Ltd
Location: Robina, Qld.
Client: The State of Qld. Major Sport Facilities Authority
Architect: Populous (formerly HOK SVE)
Struct. Eng.: SKM
Specialist: Tensys Engineering Pty Ltd
Others: Beenleigh Steel Fabrications Pty Ltd
Builder: Watpac Limited
Fabricator: Hightex GmBh
Freshly installed Roof Panels
First Day-Night Cricket Test at the Rennovated Adelaide Oval
The first day-night cricket test was held at the recently renovated Adelaide Oval.
A swinging pink ball was a factor in the very close and low scoring game which Australia managed to win.
Another factor in the success of the inaugral day-night test was the Adelaide Oval with its recently completed new stadiums.
This type of stadia are the kinds of iconic structures that our members are passionate about.
Here are some images that I took in July 2015 - unfortunately not during the test.
The LSAA 2007 Conference held at the Gold Coast included a site visit to the nearby Robina Stadium which was under construction. The stage of construction was the installation of the tensioned fabric roof panels.
The following are some images taken during that visit.
Rio Tinto Stadium
Entrant: Structurflex Ltd - Engineering Fabrication Installation
Location: Sandy - Salt Lake City Utah USA
Client: Salt Lake County - Utah & Real Salt Lake
Architect: Rossetti Architects
Struct. Eng.: Wade Design Engineers & Wayne Rendely PE
Builder: Turner Construction
Nelson Mandela Bay Multipurpose Stadium
Entrant: MakMax Australia - Designer
Location: Prince Alfred Park - North End Lake - Port Elizabeth South Africa
Client: Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality
Architect: GMP Architects
Struct. Eng.: Schlaich Bergermann & Partners
Others: MakMax (Installation)
Builder: Grinaker / Interbeton JV
Fabricator: MakMax Australia
Metricon Stadium - Carrara, Qld.
The Carrara Stadium was originally built in the late 1980’s and played host to a number of events however the venue has traditionally been a football ground. The decision to redevelop the site came as a welcome change to many sporting fans. The redevelopment is also in line with the Queensland government’s bid for the 2014 Commonwealth Games.
The newly named and revamped Metricon Stadium is built to accommodate a Australian Rules football oval, world standard cricket oval, provision to allow future installation of an athletics field and international standard soccer field including all the associated corporate, media and player facilities. The Queensland Government funded project secures a future for sport of all kinds in the region, opens the possibility to world class soccer coming to the region as well as other major national and international sporting events.
As with any world class stadium the design incorporated a tensile membrane roof component. Covering 70% of the seating capacity at the venue this roof is a major part of the facilities function and aesthetics.
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium roof in Delhi, India.
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium (JNS) was originally built in 1982 in honour of India's first Prime Minister. Mr. Nehru is credited as the founder of modern India through political and social reform. In preparation for the upcoming 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi this facility is receiving a dramatic update. The crowning achievement to the stadium's rebirth will be the tensile membrane roof, supported by a vast cable net. LSAA members MakMax were awarded the contract to supply and install an ambitious fabric and cable roof design, the structure is now near completion with 50 of the 88 fabric panels installed. Schlaich Bergermann & Partners are the structural engineers.
Chepauk Stadium, Stage One - India
This project was ambitious from the beginning; a large scale elevated cover over three grandstand seating structures presented a few structural challenges.
The purpose as with many tensile membrane projects was a combination of shade and weather cover. Each seating section required these basic needs met while maintaining a uniform style and aesthetic appeal through out. Our client, The Tamil Nadu Cricket Association, requested minimal connections to the supporting grandstand structure, leaving more space beneath for spectator seating.
The project was designed to create a unique feature to the venue. Often large scale tension membrane roofing contribute a large amount to the look and feel of a venue, it’s a prominent feature and one that needs to be eye-catching and unique.
Adelaide Oval Western Grandstand Redevelopment
APPLICATION OF PROJECT: Structural design of lightweight diagrid grandstand roof
The Adelaide Oval Western Grandstand Redevelopment comprises the partial demolition and reconstruction of the existing heritage listed western members grandstand into a new A$116m 14,000 seat grandstand. The iconic grandstand was opened for the 2010 Ashes Second Test Match to rave reviews. The diagrid roof forms the centrepiece of the new grandstand achieving structural spans up to 55m with arched 219CHS sections leading to an elegant and exceptionally light (55kg/m2) roof solution to provide the required cover to the grandstand patrons with unobstructed views and designed to withstand 180kph design wind speeds.
Early in the design the impact of the steel fabrication, erection and site tolerances were identified as of critical importance to the successful implementation of the diagrid roof design. To accommodate this the Steel Subcontractor was invited into the design team early at 50% completion to workshop with Aurecon, the Architects, Managing Contractor and Client to provide the best for project solution and ensure that the final design was constructible within the required design brief, programme and cost plan. This early involvement allowed the design team to consider these parameters early in the process and has resulted in a very successful erection process and outstanding result for the Client.
DESIGN / FABRICATION / INSTALLATION BRIEF
Key to the success of the Western Grandstand was that the final product must be iconic, it must be quintessentially Adelaide and it must work in harmony with the existing fabric of the ground. The diagrid roof forms the centrepiece of the new grandstand and is divided into 5 main sections with the central dome drawing the eye to the historic Giffen Stand – the oldest party of the existing fabric. The use of a diagrid for a stadia roof has seldom been undertaken as in the Western Grandstand solution anywhere in the world and never in Australia. This innovative roof is formed using curved 219CHS sections to achieve spans up to 55m, leading to an elegant and exceptionally light (55kg/m2) roof solution, making it one of the lightest roofs in Australia and globally. This support system provides patrons unobstructed views of the ground.
The roof design was optimised through sophisticated analysis and design including:
- Working with the design team Aurecon championed the early involvement of the steel subcontractor who was brought into the team at the completion of the schematic design. This allowed Aurecon to work directly with Built Environs and Samaras to ensure the roof solution could be built within appropriate tolerances and temporary staging
- Aurecon undertook wind tunnel modelling allowing both a reduction in design wind pressures and design certainty for the roof to be pushed to the limit. The resulting roof is one of the lightest roofs ever constructed in Australia achieving the 7,000m2 coverage with sophistication and elegance
- The roof 3D model was used for shop detailing, imported into engineering analysis software and for architectural design
- Non-linear buckling analysis to determine the overall stability, erection sequencing and temporary works
- Finite element analysis of the critical nodal connections that minimized the additional strengthening requirements of the thin walled lightweight members. Connection designs included design of the primary roof column node incorporating a 2 tonne solid steel billet
- Temporary and erection cases necessitated the roof modelled dozens of times to allow not only for the final case but the temporary cases as the roof was delivered to site in approximately 100 pieces and required to be erected cognisant of other site construction to meet program
- Integration of lighting cables and services to maintain elegance of the design solution
As evidence of the quality of the Western Grandstand, the project has recently been awarded an Architecture Award at the Australian Institute of Architects State Awards in the category of Public Buildings and a Master Builders award for excellence in commercial construction over $50m - Landmark Project amongst other awards yet to be announced being judged through the course of 2011-2012.
A critical component of improving patron amenity was improving the roof coverage for both rain events and for shading patrons from the sun. Coupled with this was an essential requirement for unobstructed views necessitating a cantilevered roof solution. Aurecon undertook a multitude of design options to achieve these objectives. The final roof solution comprises 6 roof trusses arranged on a radial grid centred on the existing Giffen Stand. The roof is supported on feature precast columns that weave through the retained heritage structure beneath with the elegant diagrid shells between. The resultant roof cantilevers 30m from the rear seats proving drip line coverage for patrons in the mid and upper tiers. Detailed sun shade modelling also proved all patrons in the grandstand including the lower tier were in shade after the lunch break of the cricket test match. These improvements dramatically improve the viewing experience of the new grandstand which is the primary driver for patron attendances.
Recognising the required synergies between the engineering and the architecture Aurecon integrated the architectural vision with the engineering design from the outset and throughout the design. Intensive workshops were held in all engineering disciplines and resulted in an optimised design while maintaining the client requirements. While this approach was adopted throughout the project the key example was the roof design where the architecture and engineering are intrinsically linked. This involved Aurecon understanding the key architectural drivers and in return communicating the structural behaviour. The design solution was determined through extensive workshopping with SACA as the client, the architects, managing contractor and cost manager where a variety of roof solutions were considered. Consideration included the following aspects of the design solution:
- Aesthetic appeal
- Material use
- Iconic status
- Fabrication and transportation
The diagrid roof is formed using curved 219CHS sections to achieve spans up to 55m, leading to an elegant and exceptionally light (55kg/m2) roof solution and comprised some 480 tonnes of steel for the 7,000m2 roof area. Key to the structural system was the roof geometry with the shape generating the structural strength and aesthetic appeal. Working closely with HASSELL + Cox architects the diagrid form was optimised based on iterations for the arch curvature resulting in curvatures span / 11.5 at the front and rear edges and span / 8.5 at the centre. The resulting diagrid form was generated in 3 dimensions creating a structurally efficient and visually pleasing roof form.
Design loads were predominantly wind loading where Aurecon carried out cutting edge wind tunnel testing of the roof structure. The unusual curved form of the diagrid roof is not considered in the Australian Standards which provide inaccurate and conservative estimates of loads over this unique curved roof shape. The use of wind tunnel modelling resulted in wind loads being significantly reduced, with significant cost savings in structural steel. Other miscellaneous loads were considered for service loading for lighting and public address.
This process of collaboration and communication is the way of the future in achieving lightweight large span structures of high aesthetic appeal
Standard steel CHS sections were predominantly used for the project. The design decisions were based on maintaining the use of standard CHS sections in order to avoid material lead time and availability issues. This facilitated the order and use of extensive readily available sections to achieve the design form. The exception was in the connections where the open CHS sections were stiffened and gusseted for load transfer with some locations necessitating the use of solid steel billets for efficient load transfer and dramatic aesthetic appeal with the roof column node a highlight.
In order to fast track the roof design and construction process and to guarantee the high degree of accuracy and quality required early involvement of the Steel Subcontractor was critical. Following iteration of the design options, Aurecon working with the design team developed the preferred diagrid solution to a schematic 50% status inviting the involvement of the Steel Subcontractor to join the design team and to finalise the documentation. Key to this was the handover of the conceptual 3D model generated by the design team with the detailed 3D modelling for fabrication undertaken by the steel contractor concurrent with the completion of the architectural and structural designs. This initiative allowed the complexities of the 3D design to be worked through in an expedient manner, satisfying the design, fabrication, transportation and erection requirements. It also facilitated the integration of the service provisions for the lighting cabling and guttering amongst the structure.
Connections in the diagrid were developed in careful consultation between Aurecon and the Architects and Steel Subcontractor. The connections were developed to achieve the required load transfer necessitated by the structural design for both the permanent and various temporary conditions requiring close liaison with the Managing Contractor and Steel Subcontractor to optimize the connections for position, tolerance and fabrication aims while ultimately creating a connection of high visual appeal given the exposed nature of the feature roof.
To ensure the appropriate fit on site trial assembly was undertaken on each area of the roof in the Steel Contractors yard where matching of connections was undertaken in a controlled environment facilitating subtle adjustments before completion of the fabrication and shop painting. A detailed methodology was paramount for the transportation, delivery and erection of the roof including temporary state designs as the near 100 pieces of the roof were sequentially erected and clad insitu.
COLLABORATION, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
Aurecon and the project team worked harmoniously through the project design and construction phases incorporating a ‘Best for Project’ desire throughout. This included the early involvement of the Managing Contractor to the design team to provide necessary constructability and programme advice and for the roof the early involvement of the Steel Subcontractor for fabrication and erection expertise. These early involvements facilitated a single design process whereby the project aims and requirements of all parties were able to be incorporated into the design.
Safety in Design (SID) for a grandstand structure is paramount and Aurecon championed and led the Client and Project Team through this process. The SID process incorporated a series of half day workshops where safety risks were identified for all stages of the project – construction, maintenance, operation and even demolition. Through this early assessment proactive design solutions were incorporated to the roof including the strategic locating of servicing to the roof to only areas easily accessible via boom access off the concourse below and the provision of walk boards and ladder access to the roof and material selections to reduce maintenance demands.
The entire project scope was delivered on budget for the project scope which expanded concurrent with the design as SACA realised further opportunities to maximise SACA’s return on investment. Benchmarking the construction cost of the Western Grandstand against other stadia projects in Australia demonstrates the value for money achieved with the cost per seat, as a traditional stadia cost measure, being up to 30% lower than similar stadia elsewhere in Australia including the MCG and Etihad Stadium.
The construction and operation of the new Western Grandstand has and will continue to provide extensive benefits to the community and economy. Throughout the construction some 588,629 person-hours were worked on the site equivalent to approximately 188 people full time for the duration of the construction period and 360 people at peak. This economic activity occurred through the Global Financial Crisis and provided a vital source of income to many South Australian trades and contractors through the period.
With Adelaide Oval commanding more use (sporting events and other events such as business gatherings, weddings, parties, conferences etc) employment throughout the operation of the facility is also significantly increased having a positive benefit to the South Australian economy and community. Additionally the Western Grandstand Redevelopment has sparked the subsequent upgrade of the Oval as part of the $535m Redevelopment and the greater riverbank precinct.
With in excess of 130,000 people attending the opening test match the popularity of the Grandstand seems assured and the project delivers the SACA members world class facilities as well as the opportunity to attract a variety of events.
Project Number: 4789
Title: Adelaide Oval Western Grandstand Redevelopment
Location: Adelaide Oval, North Adelaide, SA
Role: Structural Engineer
Client: South Australian Cricket Association (SACA)
Architect: Hassell & Cox
Structural Engineer: Aurecon
Spec Consultant: Aurecon (Services, wind, egress, acoustics etc)
Others: Mortimer Project Management
Builder: Built Environs
AAMI Park Stadium Melbourne
APPLICATION OF PROJECT
AAMI Park is Melbourne’s first purpose built venue for football (soccer), rugby league and rugby union. The 30,000-plus seat stadium offers a world class arena and playing surface for all three codes with an unparalleled spectator experience in terms of sightlines, atmosphere and amenity
AAMI Park, with its iconic bio-frame roof, fills a gap in Melbourne’s renowned suite of sporting facilities and increases the city’s ability to attract national and international events.
Home to the Victory, Hearts, Storm, Rebels and Melbourne Football Club teams, the stadium also features a sports medicine centre, elite training facility and administration complex, making it a true sports campus for Melbourne.
AAMI Park provides a strong foundation for football and the league and union codes to develop their fan base, and cements Melbourne’s claim as Australia’s – if not the world’s – sporting capital.
AAMI Park’s world class playing pitch and outstanding player facilities make it one of the best grounds to play on. In fact, AAMI Park is one of the few stadiums in the world to house four different sporting codes.
Location: Doha, Qatar
Client: Lakhwiya Sports Club
Completion Date: February 2013
Architect: Perkins Eastman (USA), ECG (Egypt)
Structural Engineer: Tensys Engineers
Builder: Al Khayyat Development
APPLICATION OF PROJECT:
The development is to create a new stadium for the local Qatar League team ‘Lakhwiya’. The works involve creating a 15,000 seat stadium with 4 grand stand sun shading roof.
The following table of Largest Stadiums was found on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_stadiums_by_capacity